Understanding Multiple Sclerosis: Symptoms, Treatment, and Care at Al Hilal Hospitals Bahrain

February 9, 2024

A complex neurological disease that affects the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS) causes a wide spectrum of symptoms that might differ in intensity and duration. For efficient care and support, it is essential to investigate the complexities of multiple sclerosis, including its symptoms, causes, treatment, and effects.

Unveiling Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

Undoubtedly, the exact location and degree of nerve damage inside the central nervous system determines the symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), which can differ greatly from person to person. An extensive list of typical MS symptoms is provided below:

 Physical Symptoms

  1. Weakness: One of the most prevalent complaints from people with MS is extreme and ongoing weariness, which interferes with daily tasks.
  1. Numbness or Tingling: Perceptual abnormalities that typically impact the face, limbs, or body, such as numbness, tingling, or a pins-and-needles sensation.
  1. Muscle Weakness: Loss of coordination, weakness, or trouble moving limbs as a result of nerve injury impairing muscle control.
  1. Spasticity: Involuntary muscle cramps or spasms that are rigid and frequently painful.
  1. Balance and Coordination Issues:Inability to walk or keep balance, which causes clumsiness or stumbling.
  1. Tremors: Uncontrollably shaking or trembling, especially in the fingers or hands.

 Visual Symptoms

  1. Optic Neuritis: An inflammation of the optic nerve that results in temporary loss of vision in one eye, double vision, or blurred vision.
  1. Nystagmus: Uncontrollably fast or jerky eye movements that impair stable vision.

Sensory Symptoms

  1. Pain: Persistent pain that affects different portions of the body and is frequently described as electric, burning, or stabbing.
  1. Modified Sensation: Increased sensitivity to touch, variations in temperature, or a new way of perceiving pain (hyperesthesia or hypoesthesia).

 Cognitive Symptoms

  1. Memory Issues: Difficulties with information processing, recall, or memory retention.
  1. Difficulties with Attention and Concentration: Unable to concentrate, pay attention, or multitask well.
  1. Speech and Language Issues: Having trouble pronouncing words, expressing ideas, or putting phrases together.

Emotional and Psychological Symptoms

  1. Depression:Depressive, despairing, or disinterested feelings in once-enjoyable activities.
  1. Anxiety: Feeling anxious, tense, or uneasy; occasionally connected to the uncertainty of having a long-term illness.

 Bowel and Bladder Symptoms

1.Urinary incontinence: Inability to regulate bladder function, resulting in frequent or urgent urination.

  1. Incontinence or Constipation: Issues with bowel motions, include both involuntary leaking and constipation.

 Sexual Symptoms

  1. Decreased Libido:A decrease in libido brought on by psychological or physical symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis.
  1. Sexual Dysfunction: Inability to attain or sustain climax or arousal, occasionally as a result of neurological symptoms.

Heat Sensitivity

Many MS patients report that heat exposure—from hot weather, hot baths, or vigorous physical activity—temporarily exacerbates their symptoms.

It is essential to comprehend and identify these various symptoms in order to diagnose MS in a timely manner and to manage it effectively. People with MS can have far better lives if they seek out medical examination and individualised care.Call us now to book your appointment.

 Multiple Sclerosis Causes and Diagnosis

 What Causes Multiple Sclerosis?

The precise cause of the complicated neurological disease known as multiple sclerosis (MS) is still unknown. Nonetheless, it is thought that a mix of immune system, environmental, and genetic factors play a role in the development of MS:

 Immune System Dysfunction

  1. The Autonomic Reaction: The immune system incorrectly targets the myelin sheath, which covers nerve fibres in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), causing multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune illness. Inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath and underlying nerve fibres result from this immunological onslaught.
  1. Misdirection of Immune Cells: Immune cells known as T cells penetrate the central nervous system and produce inflammation, which breaks down the myelin layer and causes demyelination, which in turn causes nerve damage.

Genetic Factors

  1. Hereditary Propensity: Even though MS is not inherited directly, the condition is more likely to occur in families where there has been a history of MS. A person’s susceptibility to multiple sclerosis may be influenced by certain genes related to the control and response of the immune system.
  1. Genetic Variations: Certain immune system-related gene variations, such as those pertaining to the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) gene, have been linked to a higher chance of developing multiple sclerosis.

 Environmental Triggers

  1. Infections: There has been a correlation between a higher chance of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and viral infections, specifically Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which causes mononucleosis. Nevertheless, the presence of the virus does not ensure the onset of MS.
  1. Vitamin D Deficiency: Low vitamin D levels have been linked to an increased risk of multiple sclerosis. This could be caused by a decrease in sunlight exposure or an inadequate diet.

Other Potential Contributing Factors

  1. Location: The prevalence of MS varies with location, with greater rates noted in some areas further away from the equator. This raises the possibility that environmental elements including diet, lifestyle, and sunlight play a part.
  1. Tobacco use: It has been determined that smoking cigarettes increases the likelihood of having MS and making the disease worse.

Comprehensive care and support for people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are our top priorities at Al Hilal Hospitals in Bahrain.

 Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis

A patient’s medical history, neurological exams, MRIs, and a review of the cerebrospinal fluid for indications of inflammation or immune system activation are all used in the diagnosis process.

Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Recovery

Multiple Sclerosis Treatment

  1. Medications: Symptom management, inflammation reduction, and disease-modifying treatments are the goals of these treatments.
  1. Symptomatic Management: Drugs to treat particular symptoms such as pain, exhaustion, or spasms in the muscles.
  1. Occupational and Physical Therapy: Adaptive techniques and exercise regimens to increase function and mobility.

 Recovery from Multiple Sclerosis

Although there isn’t a permanent cure, quality of life can be greatly increased, and illness progression can be greatly slowed down with early detection and thorough treatment. Many people go through phases of remission or little symptoms.

Al Hilal Hospitals’ Approach to Multiple Sclerosis

Our neurology specialists provide tailored treatment programmes based on each patient’s requirements.Physiotherapy and occupational therapy programmes are offered as rehabilitation services to enhance functional capacities.


Because of its complexity, multiple sclerosis requires knowledge, assistance, and specialised care. At Al Hilal Hospitals, we are steadfast in our dedication to offering complete care and empowering people with multiple sclerosis. We work together to provide specialised care, cutting-edge therapies, and continuous support to people with MS in order to enhance their quality of life.